Friday, December 20, 2013

Ho Chi Minh - a brief biography Class 10 PPT

Ho Chi Minh
Half Lenin, Half Gandhi

Brief Introduction
Ho Chi Minh led the Vietnamese nationalist movement for more than three decades, fighting first against the Japanese, then the French colonial power and then the US-backed South Vietnamese.
He was President of North Vietnam from 1954 until his death.

Family Background
Ho Chi Minh (originally Nguyen That Thanh) was born on 19 May 1890 in Hoang Tru in central Vietnam.
Ho's father worked at the imperial court but was dismissed for criticising the French colonial power.

Early Life
In 1911, Ho took a job on a French ship and travelled widely. He lived in London and Paris, and was a founding member of the French communist party.

Early Influences
He travelled to southern China to organise a revolutionary movement among Vietnamese exiles, and in 1930 founded the Indo-Chinese Communist Party (ICP). He spent the 1930s in the Soviet Union and China.

Return to Vietnam
After the Japanese invasion of Indo-China in 1941, Ho returned home and founded the Viet Minh, a communist-dominated independence movement, to fight the Japanese.
He adopted the name Ho Chi Minh, meaning 'Bringer of Light'.

French-Vietnam War
At the end of World War Two the Viet Minh announced Vietnamese independence.
The French refused to relinquish their colony and in 1946, war broke out.
After the Vietnam split, he was determined to reunite Vietnam under communist rule.

US Entry in Vietnam War
Fearing the spread of communism, the United States provided increasing levels of support to South Vietnam.
By 1965, large numbers of American troops were arriving and the fighting escalated into a major conflict.

Ho Chi Minh was in poor health from the mid-1960s and died on 2 September 1969.
When the Communists took the South Vietnamese capital Saigon in 1975 they renamed it Ho Chi Minh City in his honour.

BBC Biography (
Google Images (

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Quadratic Equation Solver

Festive Season is just round the corner. I would be rather busy to spend time writing a new post. So, I decided to make another applet called "Quadratic Equation Solver". As the name suggests it solves any Quadratic Equation (an equation with degree two). Some of its features are :-
• It's easy to use. ( You have to just enter the coefficients of the variables. )
• Tells you about the discriminant of the equation.
• Tells whether the equation has real roots.
• Colourful.

Monday, October 7, 2013

Pair of Linear Equations in two Variable Solver - Through Excel

Holiday are boring, aren't they? I was sitting idle at home and decided to do something useful. Here is a small applet, "Pair of Linear Equations in two Variable Solver", and it does what it promises - solves any pair of linear equations (in 2 variables). Just enter coefficients of x and y of the two equations and get your answer in a second (or maybe less).

Some highlights of this applet.
  • Very simple, and easy to use.
  • Tells about the graphical representation of these equations.
  • Contrary to some popular applets of this kind, it doesn't stuck when the equations are inconsistent or are the same (coincident lines on graph).
  • Fairly Attractive and colourful.
  • Shows the answers in both fractions and decimals.

Friday, September 20, 2013

Cell PPT 9th Class

Roll no.- Z
Academic Session: 201_-201_

We would like to acknowledge the efforts of our Biology teacher Ms. Aaaaaaa Bbbbb who helped us understand the topic and helped us by motivating. Time to time she made sure that we were going on correct path.


Basic structural and functional unit of life.
Often called Building block of life.
Discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665.
Named from the Latin word “Cellula”.
Can be differentiated by structure, number, size, shape, etc.

Discovery of Cell
Discovered by Robert Hooke.
He saw that cork resembled the structure of honeycomb.
In 1665, he discovered cell with the help of self designed microscope.
He called these boxes cell. Cell is a Latin word for a “little room”.
His discovery was important as it indicated for the first time that living organisms consisted of a smaller structures or units.

Cell Theory
In 1838, Jacob Matthias Schleiden, a German botanist, first proposed the idea that all plants consist of cell.
In 1839, Theodor Schwann, a German zoologist, asserted that all animals and plants are made up of cell.
This joint finding forms the basis of cell theory.
The cell theory was refined further in 1855, when another German Biologist, R. Virchow presented the idea that all cells arise from pre-existing cells(‘Omnis cellulae e cellulae’).

Cell theory II     
Thus cell theory comprise the following postulates :
All organisms are composed of cell and cell secretion.
All metabolic reactions take place in cells. Thus, cells are structural and functional unit of life.
All cells arise from pre-existing cells. No cell can originate spontaneously but comes into being only by division of already existing cells.
Every organism starts its life as a single cell. Viruses are an exception to cell theory.

Instruments for Studying Cells

Cells are too small to be seen with naked eyes.
Cells are studied with the help of microscopes.
Microscopes are high resolution instruments that are used for observing fine details of very fine objects.
Two common types of microscope are light microscope and electron microscope.

Cells in living organisms
All living organism on earth can be divided into 2 types :
Non-cellular organisms which do not contain any cell in their body organization, e.g., viruses. Viruses lack any membrane and hence do not show characteristics of life until they enter a living body.
Cellular organisms which contain either one or many cells in their bodies, eg., bacteria, plants and animals.

Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.

Cellular organisms can be divided into following two main types :

These organisms have primitive and incomplete cells.
Prokaryotes have all 3 basic structures of a typical cell but lack nuclear membrane around their genetic substances (DNA).
Undefined nuclear region in the cytoplasm is called nucleoid, i.e., there is no nuclear membrane.
Cell organelles like ER are absent except Ribosome.
They include archaebacteria, bacteria and cyanobacteria.

These have advanced and complete cells.
These cells contain membrane bound nuclei and other cell organelles and are called eukaryotes.
They are found in unicellular and multicellular plants and animals and contain plasma membrane, nucleus, DNA and cytoplasm with ribosomes and cellular organelles such as mitochondria.

Difference Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotic Cells
Size of the cell is small.
Nucleus is absent.
Contains single chromosome.
Nucleolus is absent.
Membrane bound cell organelles are absent.

Eukaryotic Cells
Size of the cell is large.
Nucleus is present.
Contains more than one chromosome.
Nucleus is present.
Membrane bound cell organelles are present.
Division of Labour
Same organism like humans can have cell of different type, e.g., sperm, WBC, Bone cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, fat cells, etc.
This is due to the fact that there is a division of labour in multicellular organism.
This means that different parts of human body perform different functions.
This is only possible if some cells or tissues are specialized to any specific function.

Cell Shape
The basic shape of eukaryote is spherical but is determined by specific function of the cell.
Shape of cell is variable (Amoeba, WBC) or fixed (most plants and animals, Euglena, Paramecium).
Some cell shapes are :

Cell Size
The size of different cells ranges between broad limits.
Only a few cells are visible with naked eyes while most cells are visible by microscope only.
The size of cell varies from very small cells of bacteria (0.2 to 5µm) to very large eggs of the ostrich (18 cm).
The prokaryotes usually range from 1 to 10µm.
The eukaryotes usually range from 10 to 100µm.
Amoeba proteus is biggest (60 µm) among the unicellular organisms.

Cell Volume
The volume of a cell is approx. constant for a particular cell type and is independent of the size of the organism.
For example, kidney or liver cells are about the same size in the bull, horse and mouse.
The difference in the total mass of the organ or organism depends on the number, not on the volume of the cells.
Thus, the cells of elephants may always not be larger than the cells of tiny organism.

Cell Number

The no. of cells in most multicellular organism is indefinite.
The no. of cells in an organism may be genetically fixed. This phenomenon is called eutely. It is seen is Ascaris, a type of roundworm.
No. of cells in large size animals like elephant may be countless.
No. of cells in humans are estimated to be around 100 trillion.

Plant Cell
They are Eukaryotes.
Differ from other cells because of some different features.
There wall is made up of cellulose.

Animal Cell
They are Eukaryotes.
They are the most common cell found.

Structure of Cell
Though their shape size and activities vary, all cells have following three major functional regions.
The cell membrane or plasma membrane and cell wall.
The nucleus.
The cytoplasm

Plasma Membrane
The plasma membrane (cell membrane) is made of two layers of phospholipids.
The membrane has many proteins embedded in it.
The plasma membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
It is called semi-permeable membrane.
Many molecules cross the cell membrane by diffusion and osmosis.

Plasma Membrane II
Plasma membrane contains 75% phospholipids.
It also contains proteins, cholesterol and polysaccharides.
In 1972, Singer and Nicholson suggested a model, called fluid mosaic model, for explaining ultrastructure of the plasma membrane.
The fluid mosaic model of the membrane has been described as ‘a number of protein icebergs floating in the sea of lipids”.

Cell Wall
Cell walls made of cellulose are only found around plant cells.
Cell walls are made of specialized sugars called cellulose.
Cellulose provides a protected framework for a plant cell to survive
Cell walls also help a plant keep its shape

The nucleus is a major centrally located spherical cellular component.
It is bounded by 2 nuclear membranes, both forming a nuclear envelop.
It has a ground substance named nucleoplasm.
2 Type of nuclear structures-the nucleolus and the chromatin network are embedded in nucleus.
Nucleus may be 1 or more and it is not bound by any membrane.

Nucleolus and Chromatin Material
Nucleus is 1 or more and is not bound by any membrane.
It is rich in protein and RNA and is the site of ribosome formation.
It is known as factory of ribosomes.

Chromatin material is a thin, thread like intertwined mass of chromosomes material.
It is composed of genetic substance DNA and proteins.
It is condensed into 2 or more thick ribbon-like chromosomes during division of cells.

Cell Organelles
They are backbone of cells.
Various life processes are performed by them.
They may be single or double membrane bounded, or membrane may be absent.
They are essential for functioning of cell.
They may contain DNA in them.
eg. Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Lysosomes, etc.

Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is repsonible for the production of the protein and lipid components of most of the cell's organelles.
This internal space is called the ER lumen. The ER is additionally responsible for moving proteins and other carbohydrates to the Golgi apparatus, to the plasma membrane, to the lysosomes, or wherever else needed.
There are two types of ER - rough, which is coated with ribosomes, and smooth, which isn't.
Rough ER is the site of protein synthesis. The smooth ER is where the vesicles carrying newly synthesized proteins (from the rough ER) are budded off.

They are dense, spherical and grannular particles which occur freely in the matrix.
They may remain attached to RER.
The 2 main constituents of ribosomes are RNA and proteins.
They are not bounded by a membrane.
They are both found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

Golgi Apparatus
It consists of fluid filled vacuoles and flattened cisternae.
It is single membrane bound cell organelle.
It is absent on bacteria, blue green algae, mature sperms and RBC of mammals.
Golgi apparatus originates ER, which in turn originates the former.
It stores, processes and packages various cellular secretions.

They are tiny spherical sac-like structures evenly distributed in the cytoplasm and contain powerful enzymes.
It is single membrane bounded cell organelle.
They are capable of breaking down all the organic matter.
They remove worn out and poorly working cellular organelles by digesting them to make way for their new replacement.
They are also called demolition squads, scavengers, etc.

Significance of Lysosomes
In WBC : Cells of WBC digest foreign proteins, bacteria and viruses.
In Autophagy : During starvation, the lysosomes digest stored food contents such as proteins, fats and glycogen of the cytoplasm and supply the necessary amount of energy to cell.
In metamorphosis : During the transformation of a tadpole into frog, the embryonic tissues such as gills and tails are digested by the lysosomes and utilized by other body cells.

It is known as power house of the cell.
ATP synthesis take place here.
It is double membrane bounded cell organelle.
It has their own genome.
It is absent in bacteria and the red blood cell of mammals.
It contains cristae, F1 particles and matrix.
It can make their own protein, so they are regarded as semiautonomous organelles.

Plastid occur in most plant cells and are absent in animal cells.
They have their own genome.
They are self replication organelles.
Plastids are of 3 types :

Chloroplasts are present in green algae and higher plants.
They have the green pigment called chlorophyll that are involved in photosynthesis of food. So, chloroplasts are called “kitchen of the cells”.
Chloroplast is a double membrane bounded cell organelle.
Chloroplasts trap solar energy and utilize it to manufacture food for plant.

Vacuoles are fluid filled or solid filled and membrane bounded spaces. They are a kind of storage sacs.
In plant cells, the vacuoles are large, distinct and permanent. In mature plant cells the vacuole occupies almost the entire (90%) volume of the cell.
The vacuole is bounded by a membrane, called tonoplast.
Vacuole help to maintain the osmotic pressure in a cell. They store toxic metabolic by-product or end products of plant cells.

Impact of monsoon on Indian Society PPT - Class 9

Impact of monsoon on Indian Society.
By- Xxxxxxxx Yyyyyy
IX-Z Roll No. 1
AAAA Public School

Web Sites

Bibliography 2
9th Class Geography NCERT
NTSE Study Package
Chasing The Monsoon by Alexander Frater -

Monsoon plays an essential role in economy of a country.
In the countries like India, where agriculture is the greatest source of economy, monsoon season plays a pivotal role.
In India, directly or indirectly, 70% of employment is dependent on agricultural sector.
This is one the major reason for dependence on monsoon season for the economic growth of India.

Monsoon in India
In India, the monsoon hits the southern shore in the month of June and lasts till September.
If the monsoon is good, the economy of the India gets a boost which sequentially helps in maintaining the GDP growth chart.
But, a little delay in monsoon may prove to be disaster for the Indian government as it becomes difficult to maintain the GDP growth.

Monsoon in India (2012)
Usually southwest monsoon hits the southern states i.e Kerala in the mid of June month. But, this year, the country is experiencing the delay in the monsoon.
The monsoon touched India in the first week of July.
The monsoon is getting slower and scanty rainfall can be experienced this year in major part of the country.

Reason for less rainfall in India in 2012
The less rainfall in the country may create drought like situation. In India, the winter 2011 was longer and colder.
Similarly, the summer was usually less hotter than usual. The reason for all this seasonal variation is the El Nino effect of the Pacific ocean which lasted for about four months.

Impact of good monsoon in India
Increased output of grains and oil seeds
Better irrigation
Reduction in inflation

Increased output of grains and oil seeds
A good rainfall tends to increase the productivity of rice, sugarcane, millet, oil seeds and cotton. This encourages the government to ease the edges on the export of wheat and rice.

Better irrigation
A good rainfall increases the ground water level and replenishes the reservoirs. This helps in good irrigation system and better hydroelectricity power output.
Better Irrigation facilities is a major reason for increased agriculture in US.

Reduction in inflation
The good monsoon in the country also increases the production of vegetables and fruits. This reduces the price and thus calms down the inflation.

Impact of less rainfall in India
Price of agricultural products rises
Shortage of power supply
Shortage of water supply

Price of agricultural products rises
Since there is deficit in the rainfall this year, the production of crops, vegetables and fruits is highly affected.
Due to shortage of rainfall, sowing of groundnut, paddy fields, soya beans, and kharif crops in the different states have been affected.

Shortage of power supply
Rise in temperature has resulted in shortage of power supply in many states of India. The power cut is also one of the main reasons for shortage of products. And this finally results in the hike in the price of agricultural products.

Shortage of water supply
In states like Maharashtra, where the water supply of whole year is dependent on the monsoon rainfall, people experience the shortage of water supply. In Mumbai, the rainwater is collected in the huge tanks which is processed and supplied across the city around the year.

Less rainfall will result in less production. This will create drought like situation. Though India is self-sufficient for production of agricultural needs, but, if such situation occurs, then, India will be pushed into global market. This will result in inflation.

Extreme Flooding
Occasionally, particularly heavy rains lead to large-scale or even catastrophic floods.
In 2005, more than 1,000 people were killed in floods and landslides. In 2008, more than a million people were left homeless, and 250,000 homes destroyed after the Kosi river in Nepal burst its banks.
Flood waters rushed down the eastern flank of the Himalayas and flooded a significant portion of the state of Bihar.

Extreme flooding due to monsoon.
How to cope up with bad monsoon rainfall
Install rainwater harvesting units in your building.
Save water and do not misuse the water.
Dig the ponds and well to store rain water.
Plant as many as trees in you nearby locality. Encourage others to plant the trees.

Indian economy is highly dependent on the agricultural sector
If the condition remains same, then agricultural sector is going to experience very bad situation which will directly affect the Indian economy.
Therefore, Indian government must initiate some actions to improvise the infrastructure of agricultural sector in order to make the Indian economy independent of monsoon rains.

Friday, May 17, 2013

How to add interactive Excel WorkBook to Blogger?

How to add Excel WorkBook on your site.? For some the answer to the question may be very simple. Go to Scribd and Upload... But the main problem exists when you add the word interactive to your question. I searched my net hoping to find the answer. But the articles on the net were not useful and were very old. So, I decided to write a guide to help you.

Go to the following link.

Login through your Microsoft account. Click "Upload" (3rd button from top-left).

Now Upload the Desired File.

After the desired file appears, Right Click it and Click Embed.

Click "Customise how..."

In interaction group, check the 2nd option.
Copy the code in "Enbed Code".

Open Blogger and Click New Post, then click on HTML Tab.

Paste the Copied Code and Publish the Post and see your Excel Workbook added to your blog.
To see an example click here. 
And now Compare it with Scribd method

Age of Mythology: Solution: "Insert the Age of Mythology CD" error

Well the earlier night while playing one of my favorite games Age of Mythology, I encountered an error. It read "Insert the Age of Mythology CD".

*Well you can only solve the error if you are not playing the game by CD ROM but instead it is on your PC.

  1. Download the file from here.
  2. Extract the the downloaded zip file.
  3. Now right-click the icon on the desktop and click Open File Location.
  4. Open the Extracted folder and then the Crack folder.
  5. Copy the file to the folder that you have opened in the 3rd step.
  6. Click Replace Box.
  7. Bravo! Now you can play your favorite Age Of Mythology again.
  8. Facing any problems.? Feel free to comment here.
  9. Like or Share this post.

Monday, May 13, 2013

Presentation on Surface Area and Volumes Grade 9/10

Surface Area and Volumes
By – XYZ
Subject – Maths, Sub. Teacher  - Ms. XYZ
XYZ School,

Surface Area & Volume Defination
Surface area is the total area of the faces and curved surface of a solid figure.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary.

Right Circular Hollow Cylinder
Right Circular Cone
Spherical Shell
Hemispherical Shell
Frustum of a Right Circular Cone

A closed figure whose faces are rectangles, is called a cuboid.
Let l, b and h are respectively the length, breadth and height of a cuboid, then.
Volume = lbh cubic units
Total Surface Area of a Cuboid = 2(lb + bh + hl) sq. units.
Lateral Surface Area = 2(l + b)h sq. units.
Diagonal = √l2 + b2 + h2 units.

When all sides (edges) of a cuboid are equal in length, it is called a cube.
If length of each egde of a cube is a units, then
Volume = a3 cubic units.
Total Surface Area = 6a2 sq. units.
Lateral Surface Area = 4a2 sq. units.
Diagonal = √3 a units.

A right circular cylinder is a solid generated by the revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides.
Let r be the radius and h be the height of a cylinder. Then,
Volume = πrh
             = Area of base x height
Curved Surface Area  = 2πrh
                                    = Perimeter of the base x height
Total Surface Area      = Curved Surface Area + Area of both circular ends
                                    = 2πrh + 2πr²
                                    = 2πr (h +r)
Area of each end         = πr²

Right Circular Hollow Cylinder
Let r and R be the internal and exterior radii of a hollow cylinder of height h, Then,
Area of each end             = πR²-πr²= π(R²- r²)
Curved Surface Area      = Inner Curved Surface Area +  Outer Curved Surface Area
                                        = 2πrh + 2πRh
                                        = 2πh (r+R)
Total Surface Area          = Curved Surface Area + Area of                                                                  both ends
                                         = 2πrh + 2πRh + πR²-πr² + πR²- πr²

                                         = 2πh (r+R) + 2π(R²- r²)
                                         = 2πh (r+R) + 2π(R+r)(R-r)
                                         = 2π(r+R)(h+R-r)
Volume of material
                                         = External Volume – Internal Volume
                                         = πR²h-πr²h
                                         = πh(R²-r²)

Right Circular Cone
If a right angle triangle is revolved about one of the sides containing the right angle, the solid thus generated is called a right circular cone.
If r, h and l be the radius, height and slant height of the cone, then
l = √r² + h², r = √l² - h², h = √ l² - r²
Curved Surface Area      = πrl
Total Surface Area          = Curved Surface Area + Area of base
                                        = πrl + πr²
                                        = πr(l +r)
Volume                            = (1/3)πr²h
                                        = (1/3)(Area of base) x height

It is the locus of a point in space, which moves such that its distance from a fixed point is always constant.
If r be the radius of sphere, then
Surface Area                  = 4πr²
Volume                           = (4/3)πr³
For Hemisphere
Surface Area                  = 4πr²
Total Surface Area        = 2πr² + πr² = 3πr²
Volume                          = (2/3)πr³

Spherical Shell
Let r and R be the inner and outer radii of a the sphere.
Volume of material           = (2/3)πR³ - (2/3)πr³
C.S.A. (if edge ignored) : = 2πr² + 2πR²
C.S.A. (if edge included): 2πr² + 2πR² + πR² -πr²

Frustum of Right Circular Cone
Frustum of a cone is the solid obtained after removing the upper portion of the cone by a cone parallel to its base. The lower portion thus obtained is called frustum of the cone.
If the radii of bigger and smaller bases of the frustum are ‘R’ and ‘r’ slant height be ‘l’ then
Slant height (l)             = √h² + (R-r)²
Curved Surface Area   = π(R+r)l
Total Surface Area       = C.S.A. + πR² + πr²
Volume                         = (1/3)πh(R² + r² +R.r)

Saturday, May 4, 2013

Electron Cofigurator - Configuration Of Electrons through Excel

The Electron Configurator is a great tool for people dealing with Chemistry and related Fields.
Its Main Features are: 

  •  Easy to use Interface.
  •  Exceptions are altered.
  •  Shows various orbits perfect for students.
  •  Main Configurator helpful for students in lower grades.
  •  Low or Minimal bandwidth usage.
  • Free.
  • Great for coding Freaks.

Friday, May 3, 2013

Tax Your Brain Delhi City Finals

            1st Round
       Which city hosted the Afro-Asian games in 2003?
       What is the common name of holy tree which has scientific name – Ficus religiosa?
       Which father-son pair scored test century on their debut?
       Lala, Surinder Amarnath
       Who is secretary of USA?
       John Kerry
       2nd Round
       “La maison à vapeur”, a book written by Jules Verne, is associated to which Indian personality?
       Nana Saheb
       Name the person who is the only doctor to receive Bharat Ratna, and was alumni of Calcutta medical College?
       BC Roy
       Who appeared on postage stamp released by Indian Postal Service to celebrated 150th anniversary of TOI in 1988?
       The Common Man
       Champa, Mohini, Chameli are related to what?
       Last 3 Tiger Cubs
       Visual Round
       Postage stamp featuring Chaudhry Bhan Pratap was asked to identify.
       Face of Kiran Bedi was hidden and clue was given that she was a tennis player was asked to identify.
       Photos of Alam-Aara and Karishma Kapoor were shown and it was asked to find the relationship.
       Childhood face on New Pope was asked to identify.
       4th Round
       “ Unity is strength, knowledge is power and attitude is everything.” was motto of an organisation headed by which sportsmen?
       Lance Armstrong
       Where was 1st IIT set up?
       Moregaon, Siddhatek, Pali, Mahad, Thevur, Lenyandri, Ozar, Ranjangaon are in Mumbai and are related to what?
       Under Guidance of Prof. Amukurajah Das on a experimental basis government launched _____ in Delhi on 15 September 1959.
       Video Round
       Clip on Do Bigha Zameen.
       Clip on Manthar, asked the storyrighter.
       Clip on Shatrily.
       Clip on Ad of “Center Fruit Mingle”.
       Rapid Fire
       Questions on
       Location of sports events

Wednesday, May 1, 2013

Mission JSTSE

Here is the complete guide which a student needs to clear JSTSE.

Self Confidence
S. Chand Book (395 Rs.), 10th Class Science Book (135 Rs.), PC and Internet (30K), Self Confidence (NA), Hard Work (NA).



Junior Science Talent Search Examination is conducted by the Directorate of Education every year. It happens mostly in late January and mostly on Sundays. Only students of class IX in Delhi can give this exam and to give this exam, you need to secure 65% in your previous class i.e. Class VIII.

The JSTS process starts in August/September where the school has to fill in a registration form and send it to the Directorate Of Education.

The first level paper is divided into 2 parts. The first part is a 1 hour GK paper which tests your knowledge of GK, current affairs etc. It is a 50 marks paper. The next level paper is a 3 hour paper that tests your Maths and Science. There are about 30 questions in Maths and 40 questions each in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. 200 marks in 180 minutes.

The first round results come out usually in mid April and are uploaded at the Directorate of Education website under public Circulars ( There were 162 students selected in the first level in 2012-13. There is no interview.


Mirror Formula
  • Mainly from 10th NCERT.
  • Main topics - Light, Electricity, Heat, Magnetic Effect of Electric Current. 
  • First study from the NCERT with proper concepts, and then try the JSTSE book.
  • Don't only mug up formulas, know their proper use. For example, If you know how to calculate equivalent resistance in an electric circuit, you should know how these formulas are derived, similarly, knowing the mirror formula won't help, you should know its proper application (sign convention) and use.

  • Chemistry in JSTSE is mostly general and is about formulas of various compounds, uses of different things, etc.
  • Requires Hard Work.
  • Thoroughly study chemistry section of GK book.
  • Concepts in 9th should be thoroughly studied.

  • GK in JSTSE is plain and can be high scoring.
  • Quite unpredictable.
  • Last year, it was mostly the History Book Chapters (9th class) and specifically the ones in SA-II.
  • Logos have been removed from the syllabus.
  • Along with your GK books you need to consider the History Book as well.
  • Difficulty level unpredictable.
  • The main topics are mostly from 9th.
  • Along with 9th and 10th Science Books, the reference book for 9th should be sufficient.
  • Needs a lot of practice.
  • S. Chand JSTSE book sufficient.

  • Study for the exam from beginning of the session.
  • Cover the syllabus before the winter vacation.
  • In the vacation,
    • Do mock tests.
    • Solve and learn questions from Previous' Years papers.
  • On the night just before the exam,
  • Mock Test.
    • Relax.
    • Have a great sleep.
  • On the exam day,
    • Be calm, composed and confident.
    • Don't interact with your classmates.
  • After the exam,
    • Enjoy.
    • Relax.